Metallization and Thin Film


Description: Deposition of various metals and their alloys as thin films for use in semiconductor manufacturing process. Includes topics on deposition systems including vacuum pumps.

Length of time: 6-hours


Module: Atomic theory

Module: Crystal structure

Module: Chemical Vapor Deposition

Module: Semiconductor processing measurements


1. Metallization


Metal film uses


Desirable attributes

Metallization schemes



2. Deposition






3. High-vacuum pumps


Student objectives:

Student will be able to:

1. Define metallization in semiconductor manufacturing process and give examples of functions provided by metal films.

2. List some key metals and alloys used in metallization processes in semiconductor manufacturing process. Compile problems (e.g. electromigration) that can occur with each type of metal or alloy.

3. List desirable properties of a metal used as a surface conductor on a chip.

4. Give advantages for multilayer metal systems and make a sketch to help describe the multilayer scheme.

5. Describe vacuum deposition and the affiliated materials, chemicals, methods, and equipment.

6. Describe sputter deposition or physical vapor deposition (PVD) and the affiliated material, chemical, methods, and equipment. Discuss the control of film characteristics.

7. Describe at least four sputtering methods used in semiconductor manufacturing process metallization operations. Use sketches and labels to clarify the descriptions.

8. Explain how LPCVD is used to deposit metals. List some benefits of LPCVD usage.

9. Explain why refractory metals and their silicides have become useful with the availability of PVD (sputtering) and LPCVD processes.

10. List some ways to achieve high vacuums in semiconductor manufacturing process metallization processes. Focus on types of pumps using labeled sketches as needed. List strengths, weaknesses, and special precautions with each type of pump.